Water consumption

Household water consumption

Water scarcity has become a global problem.Do Slovenians think the same?Most of Slovenia is still supplied with drinking water, so that even during droughts there is no significant shortage of drinking water.How long will it be like this?Decades ago, no one wondered how much water we use for cooking, washing, hand washing dishes and machine washing, for making various goods: clothes, paper, and for watering plants in greenhouses… Today, we have largely replaced the wasteful bathing in bathswith a shower where we can use less water. 

Water consumption in Slovenia
Consumption of water for own needs is increasing.In 2017, every Slovene consumed an average of 113 liters of drinking water per day or 41.3 m3 per year;two years later, in 2019, consumption is 104 liters per day.Unfortunately, this data does not provide a true picture of actual water consumption, as it only includes household consumption.What is the water consumption in clothing manufacturing, food production and processing?What about water consumption at work or school? 

Increase water consumption for irrigation

Due to rising temperatures, we began to use larger quantities of water for watering and irrigating gardens and agricultural land.In Slovenia, due to mild winters, which do not bring much snowfall, which would provide sufficient water supplies for dry spring and summer periods, and high summer temperatures, there is a greater need for irrigation.It has tripled in the last decade.However, water consumption in individual years is also a reflection of the weather conditions in that year. 

Are young people aware of how much water they consume per day?

Do young people know how much water they consume per day, and how to reduce its consumption? These are key issues when talking about water consumption. So we decided to answer those questions. We performed an analysis of water consumption among students. We recorded water consumption every day for one week. For one week, students monitored water consumption in the toilet, showering, bathing, washing hands and teeth, washing dishes by hand and machine, washing machines, cooking and drinking, and cleaning the apartment. Water consumption was recorded by 37 students. The lowest water consumption was 95.56 liters, and the highest was 914.79 liters, which is 8 times more than the average consumption of Slovenes in 2017 and 9 times more than in 2019. The results are certainly not completely accurate, as it is difficult to estimate how much we consumed water at a certain time, although we know the data for water flow per minute. Often the water does not flow "at full speed", so it is difficult to estimate how much water we used at that time. Even if the results were slightly lower, they still show that students are very wasteful in water consumption. The average water consumption was 396 liters per day, which is almost 4 times more than the Slovenian average. Most of the water was used for showering (almost 181 liters), which far exceeds the recommended amount of water for this type of washing (50 l). They also use a lot of water to wash their hands and teeth, as much as 115 liters a day. Based on my experience of this type of water consumption, I think the students gave a poor estimate of how much they actually used. If they washed their hands and teeth an average of 10 times a day, then the water should flow with each wash for more than one minute. I hope this is not true.

A lot of water was also used for hand washing dishes and in the toilet. Consumption for hand washing was 45 liters, and in the toilet 38 liters. 
The rest of the water was used for: 

  • machine washing - 7 liters, 
  • bathing - 5 liters (only four students bathed), 
  • cooking and drinking - 2.5 liters, 
  • dishwasher - 2.2 liters (one third of participants do not have a dishwasher), 
  • cleaning the apartment - 0.67 liters. 

What should we be concerned about increasing water consumption?

Data on water consumption are certainly worrying. Because of this, we spent a lot of time in class talking about how to reduce water consumption if we want to have enough drinking water for everyday use in the future. It must worry us, as it is imperative that we start thinking seriously about what I can do to reduce water consumption. Theoretically we all know what to do, but in practice it is a little different (e.g. when it is a pleasure to be exposed to jets of warm water). Is it possible to give up these pleasures? Is the (too) low price of water 0.8144 euros (Maribor) for 1000 liters to blame for such a large consumption? You could buy about 1 liter of bottled water at the store for that price. 

What can we do?

Certainly, each of us can save a lot of water in personal hygiene (closing the water while grinding, taking a quick shower, closing the water while brushing our teeth, we open the taps up to the middle…).If we have old toilet bowls, we can replace them with new two-stage ones, which can consume only a third of the water compared to the old ones.You can also save a lot of water by washing dishes in the dishwasher.It will not be enough to reduce water consumption only in households, but we must also reduce water consumption outside the home.We can save a lot of water in the garden if we use rainwater for watering, which we collect throughout the year.Such water is also much more suitable for irrigation than tap water, which may contain chlorine.Water consumption for watering can also be reduced by installing a drip system that supplies water directly to the plant.We have a lot of options, we just have to use them.Let’s join those who have been doing this for years. 

What do students think about water and irrigation?

Water is a topic that practically everyone talks about. It is talked about at home, among neighbors, in kindergarten, in primary school, in secondary school, among pensioners ...

Why do we talk so much about water? Probably because there is no life without it. Unfortunately, there is more and more talk about it because there is less and less of it, especially drinking water. Both running and standing water are increasingly polluted. It is also being talked about more and more in connection with the irrigation of plants.

What do conservation technicians think about water? What does water mean to them? What is clean water for them? What is irrigation or what is its significance?

Probably a lot of people find themselves in their answers. How we are really aware that it is high time to do something to protect different water sources is another story. We also need to think more and more about irrigating larger areas, as rainfall is very unevenly distributed and, as a result, there are more and more droughts that threaten our crops.

Just think of the last frosts that destroyed the fruit crop. You may have heard many people talk about why fruit growers do not make an irrigation system that could protect their crops. But the irrigation system does not help fruit growers if they do not have water supplies with which to irrigate. This is exactly what happened to a fruit grower from Primorska. He had an irrigation system, but due to lack of rainfall in the winter months, he could not use it.

So let’s not be critical of students ’responses. We may all really know everything about water, but do we really do enough to keep water clean? This must be asked of each of us. Let the answers be our motivation for the future. Let's keep the water clean, let's keep the drinking water! 

What does water mean to you?

  • The water refreshes me, it quenches my thirst and I wash with it. I see it as a great treasure that unfortunately not everyone has.
  • Water is life and is needed by all living things on Earth. 
  • Water is the source of life. We need it for drinking, for watering plants, for washing and for maintaining hygiene. 
  • Water is a source of hygiene, drink and a necessity in the household…
  • Water means everything to me and I don’t consume it excessively. It is the source of life. 
  • The source of life for all living beings. 
  • Water is the best drink. 
  • Water means something to me that you can’t survive without and is an important source of life. 
  • I’m an aquarist where you can’t do without water. 
  • Water means a lot to me. Without it, life is impossible to imagine, as we use it on a daily  basis. 
  • Water is one of the most important raw materials (resources) on Earth. 

What is clean water for you?

  • It is water free of substances that are harmful to human, animal and plant health.
  • Clean water is suitable for drinking and household use.
  • For me, clean water is one whose purity has been confirmed by indicators. If the water in a certain area is clean, there is a great biodiversity.
  • Clean water is something valuable to me, but in limited quantities.
  • Clean water does not contain faeces and dirt and is suitable for everyday use. 
  • A source for life.
  • Natural drinking water that has not been filled into the packaging.
  • Good thing for thirst quenching and for washing. Important for humans, animals and plants.
  • There is not enough clean water in the world. Clean water is the source of life.
  • It can be drunk without boiling or sterilization and drunk without hesitation.
  • Drinking water is that which is purified and can be drunk.
  • Pure water does not contain chemicals or chlorine. It is neutral with pH 7.
  • Clean water does not contain various bacteria and harmful particles. It is water that we can drink.
  • It is water that animals and humans can drink.
  • Clean water does not contain harmful substances. However, this is not necessarily tap water. 

What is irrigation or what is its significance?

  • By irrigation, I imagine consuming larger amounts of water than usual;but I think of irrigation farming and irrigating the container for easier cleaning.
  • I do not know.
  • Irrigation is…
  • If there is not enough rainfall, irrigation is required.Irrigation provides water to plants even when there is not enough rainfall.
  • Use of water for irrigation system.
  • Growing seedlings.
  • Irrigation means life.Irrigation is used when there is a drought.
  • Irrigation for plants (eg in the field).Irrigation systems on the Nile.
  • Irrigation is the unwise consumption of water that could be used in everyday life.
  • Irrigation is important in agriculture.
  • Irrigation is important for plant life.
  • We can irrigate the fields.Irrigation was already known to the Egyptians.
  • We can irrigate the fields to create suitable conditions for plant growth.We can soak clothes to remove stains from them.However, people can soak in a bathtub, pool or lake. 

 

 Meteorological report for March (Maribor) 

For the first quarter of 2021, we can say nothing new about precipitation.The lack of precipitation in the winter months continues, we miss the snowfall in the lowlands. There is also not enough precipitation compared to long-term averages.On the graph, we can see that the daily average precipitation was decreasing from week to week, which is also shown by the blue dashed line. 

The average relative humidity in March was 63.89 %, which is not surprising given the smaller amount of precipitation.However, the differences were quite large, from just over 48 % to just under 83 %. 

March was again very turbulent in terms of temperatures.Temperatures went up, then down, then up and down, which happened throughout the month (at least 4 times).Interestingly, this also happened in 2020, 2019 and partly in 2018. Due to the high temperatures, fruit trees (peaches, cherries and plums) started to bloom at the end of the month.In the exposed positions, we could admire the white carpet of flowers (black thorn - Prunus spinosa).


The temperature threshold of 5 °C (the average daily temperature must be above this temperature for at least six days) was reached on 23th March, which is 9 days later than the long-term average.


The temperature threshold of 8 °C was reached on 29th March, which is 10 days earlier than the long-term average.

These two data show that the first half of the month was below the long-term temperature average, and in the last week of March the average temperatures were twice as high.

The difference between the highest (31st March) and the lowest (7th March) measured temperature in the month was as much as 31.1 °C, which is almost five degrees more than in March 2020, but much less than the measured temperatures in March 2018,when it was as high as 36.1 °C.


The average monthly temperature was higher than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 6.21 °C and it was 0.21 °C higher than the long-term average.The long-term average for March is 6 °C in Maribor.By comparison, in March 2018 the average temperature was 3.35 °C, in March 2019 as high as 8.59 °C and in March 2020 a high 7.04 °C.It is easy to see that the temperatures are too high in March.


Differences between night and day temperatures also fluctuated, ranging from 7.7 °C (20th March) to 18.7 °C (3th and 29th March).

In March, the daily average temperature was seventeen times below the average of the period from 1981 to 2010 (6 °C).

The maximum temperature was nine days below 10 °C and five days above 20 °C (last week of the month).The minimum temperature was sixteen days below the freezing point.

The lowest temperature in March was - 6.4 °C, and the highest temperature was 24.7 °C, which is the highest measured temperature in March in the last 10 years on the school estate.
In the first three months, the average temperature was 1.43 °C higher than the long-term average (measurements every 30 minutes), this means that this year the average temperature is 0.36 °C lower than last year.

According to the ARSO measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours), was 1.23 °C higher. 
* The first horizontal red line (5 °C) represents the temperature threshold at 5 °C.
* The second horizontal red line (8 °C) represents the temperature threshold at 8 °C.
* The blue dashed line represents the growth trend of the average temperature in the month.

For the first quarter of 2021, we can say that temperatures varied greatly.Temperatures fluctuated throughout.In some periods, these changes occurred on a daily basis.The differences were also up to 15 °C, in one day.However, if we look at all three months, we can see that the temperature is rising linearly, as shown by the blue dashed line. 

Precipitation data show that there was very little precipitation in March, compared to the long-term average.The measuring device detected only 17 mm of precipitation, which is less than a third of the long-term average precipitation (57 mm of precipitation).Interestingly, there was as much as nine days of precipitation, which means it was more about dew than real rain.In the first three months, only 77 % of the long-term average precipitation fell.

Bulbs and irrigation 

 

In the subject Ornamental herbaceous plants, we learned about bulbs and tubers. We wondered if bulbs and tubers needed larger amounts of water for their growth and if it would make sense to irrigate them. Student Biljana Milčev checked the need for water in the most common bulbs and tubers that we encounter in our gardens. In addition to the need for water, she also introduced us to what underground organs they have, how we supply bulbs and tubers, and presented them in more detail. 

After the presentation, we found out that bulbs and tubers cannot survive without water, but they still do not need additional irrigation, as there is enough precipitation in Slovenia at the time when they need it most. 

However, bulbs and tubers need additional watering if the spring is very poor in precipitation. Such was the spring in 2020, when more than a third less precipitation fell in Maribor in the first five months than the 30-year average. 

Presentation of the need for water in onions and tubers (Biljana Milčev)  

World Water Day 2021 

(Importance and evaluation of water)

 

Since 1993, March 22 has been marked as World Water Day, which is intended to warn the world public of the limited and endangered natural water resources. 

Every year, a current topic is highlighted, which this year is dedicated to the importance and evaluation of water. The value of water is much higher than its price, so this year's theme encourages us to think about what water means to us, its true value and its protection. At the same time, it raises awareness of the importance of water for households, family life, for survival, for human well-being and in general for the environment and its conservation. 

We also talked about the importance of water with students in the nature conservation technician and florist program. Both programs are also very professionally related to water. 

For an introduction, I provided them with some basic information on water consumption. Thus, more than 79 million m3 of water or 38.1 m3 of water per capita per year or 104 liters of water per year are pumped for the needs of households. It is, of course, the consumption of water that we consume directly. This figure does not include water consumed by the industry to produce the products we use on a daily basis. 

But what is our water consumption? 

In November, we monitored our water consumption with students for a week. The data is far from encouraging. The average consumption was as much as 396 liters, which is almost four times more than the Slovenian average. Most of the water is used for showering and washing hands, followed by hand washing dishes, toilet bowls, machine washing, cooking and drinking, machine washing dishes, and the least for cleaning the apartment. 

Where are the reserves? 

Definitely where water consumption is greatest, in showering and hand washing. We must be aware that drinking water may no longer be taken for granted, even in Slovenia. Once we understand this, then I believe we will reduce water consumption. Students are well aware that they take too long to shower and that they should turn off the water while grinding. Now they just have to put this into practice. 

Precisely because of the high water consumption, I gave them the task of having to make a plan on how to spend the day with just 10 liters of water. The first response was, of course, expected: "It's impossible!" For us it may be true, but many around the world already have to survive on much less water. 

All together we need to reduce water consumption. In this way, we will achieve two positive things. We will save on drinking water, which unfortunately is not available in unlimited quantities, and reduce the amount of wastewater that needs to be treated. 

Everyone can contribute their pebble to the mosaic of a safer future that will ensure that we still drink clean drinking water. 

Meteorological report for February 

You could say nothing new.Just as January ended, February continued, with above-average high temperatures and relatively little precipitation.February 2021 was a copy of February 2019 and 2020. The only difference was that this year was slightly colder, but still well above the long-term average.We already had a real spring in the second half of the month.Only the middle of the month, when the temperatures were below freezing, reminded us of winter.One week of low temperatures fortunately prevented the onset of flowering fruit trees (apricots, peaches).

The difference between the highest (23th February) and the lowest (13th February) measured temperature in the month was as much as 32.7 °C.This is very unusual for February.It seems that we will have to get used to it, because this has happened for the second time in the last three years (in 2019 - 31 °C).

The average monthly temperature was significantly higher than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 4.19 °C and it was 2.49 °C higher than the long-term average.By comparison, in February 2018 the average temperature was - 1.41 °C, in February 2019, 4.7 °C and in February 2020 as much as 5.82 °C.The long-term average for February is 1.7 °C in Maribor.Of course, four years is not enough to be able to talk specifically about rising trends, but it is going in that direction.Such temperatures are mainly a threat to fruit trees, which bloom very quickly and are therefore more exposed to frost.We can fight frost by spraying, but unfortunately these systems are very expensive.

In February, the average temperature was six times below the freezing point (0 °C) and the maximum temperature was only twice.The minimum temperature was fourteen times below the freezing point, and in 2020 fifteen times.In terms of temperatures, this was one of the few encouraging data.The difference in average temperature between the coldest (12nd February) and the warmest (26th February) day was as high as 17.98 °C.Plant species and also some animal species suffer from such great changes.

In February, the average temperature was seven times below the long-term average (1.7 °C), last year only twice.The maximum temperature was seventeen days above 10 °C, nine days above 20 °C.The minimum daily temperature was -10.8 °C, which is the normal temperature for the winter month.However, as I mentioned, there were not enough days like that in February.

The minimum temperature in February was - 10.8 °C, and the highest temperature 21.9 °C.Compared to February 2020, the minimum temperature was - 5.5 °C, the highest was 17.9 °C.We had similar temperatures in February 2019, when the minimum temperature was - 8 °C, and the highest was as high as 23 °C.In the first two months, the average temperature is as much as 2.03 °C higher than the long-term average.

According to the ARSO measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours), was 1.96 °C higher. 

If the temperatures were too high, luckily there was at least some precipitation so the cereal crops didn’t feel drought.At the same time last year, the cereals were already turned yellow, which is due to high temperatures and lack of precipitation.There was less precipitation in February than the long-term average.

The measuring device detected that there was 32.6 mm of precipitation, which is slightly less than the long-term average (38 mm of precipitation).Virtually all precipitation fell from 7th February to 11 February. In recent years, the month of February has been very unpredictable in terms of precipitation.Do we have above-average precipitation (2018), or below-average precipitation (2019 and 2020).

The average relative humidity in February was 74.33 %, which is slightly less than in January (78.50 %).

Meteorological report for January 

January is the central month of meteorological winter and usually the coldest month of the year, which is not the case in recent years, when temperatures are above average.This year we had only 14 days of real January, with temperatures below 0 °C.The last 10 days were more similar to spring than winter, as the average temperature during this time was 4.29 °C.We had a warmer 10-day period in January in 2018, when the average temperature was above 5 °C.

The difference between the highest (21st January) and the lowest (18th January) measured temperature in the month was 19.4 °C, which is the lowest difference in recent years.


The average monthly temperature was higher than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 1.47 °C and it was 1.57 °C higher than the long-term average.The long-term average for January is - 0.1 °C in Maribor.For comparison, in January 2018 the average temperature was 2.87 °C, and in January 2019 it was 0.10 °C.We can say that in recent years the temperature "jumps" up and down.What has been common in recent years is that it is not very cold.

The difference in average temperature between the coldest (17th January) and the warmest (22nd January) day was as high as 13.20 °C.We need to know that this is an average daily temperature and that there has been a temperature reversal in just five days.


In January, the average temperature was only eleven times below the long-term average (-0.1 °C).The maximum temperature was five days above 10 °C, and not once did the maximum temperature fall below 0 °C.The lowest temperature in January was - 7.4 °C and the highest temperature was 12 °C, which is similar to 2019 and 2020. It is worrying that in January there are more and more days with temperatures above 10 °C and fewer days with temperatures below0 °C.

According to the ARSO measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours), the average temperature in January was 1.63 °C.

Precipitation data show that there was slightly more precipitation in January than the long-term average.The problem is that there was not much snowfall in the lowlands. Snow represents the water supply for the spring months.The measuring device detected 50.6 mm of precipitation, which is slightly more than the long-term average (35 mm of precipitation).There were 14 days of precipitation, which is a lot for January.In January 2018 fell 44.4 mm of precipitation, in January 2019 fell 28.8 mm of precipitation, and in January 2020 only 4.6 mm of precipitation. 

The average relative humidity in January was 78.50 %, which is 6 % less than in January 2020 (84.55 %).Very unusual, given that there was more precipitation.In January there was a significant fluctuation in air humidity, with only 56 % to 97 %.

Weather report for 2020 

Here is the final weather report for 2020 (the estate of the Biotechnical School Maribor). You can see important monthly data and a total average for 2020. The report shows that the average temperature in 2020 was 11.38 °C or higher by 0.83 °C compared to the 30-year average. The year 2020 was one of the warmest in Maribor. They were warmer only in 2000 and 2014,when the average temperature was 12 °C.
The highest temperature was 34 °C, which is far from the record temperature measured temperature on the estate, which was 40.6 °C (8th August  2013). Minimum temperatures also prove that temperatures are rising. In 2020, we did not even come close to the record mark (-23 °C), as it was only -8.1 °C.
Interestingly, despite the high average temperature, the summer was not severely hot. In 2020, 27 days were warmer than 30 °C, the same as in 2018. For comparison, in 2019 there were as many as 37 such days. Fortunately, there was only one day when the lowest daily temperature did not fall below 20 °C. So we only had one tropical night.
In 2020, there was 901.4 mm of precipitation, which is slightly more than the 30-year average (893 mm). However, there was less precipitation than in 2019 (939 mm) and much more than in 2018 (784.6 mm). The highest precipitation was recorded in 1962 (1304 mm) and the lowest in 2011 (604 mm).
In 2020 we had two very rainy days, when there was 49.8 and 41.2 mm of precipitation, which is still much less than in 2018, when 78.6 mm of precipitation fell (4th May). The first four months we had very few rainy days, only 26. The result was a small amount of precipitation.
In May, the number of rainy days increased significantly, but we can say that it is often only a rosé, which does not greatly benefit the plants orcan even harm them if the temperature is high enough, as there is a much greater possibility of mold and rust.
As a result, there was more than a third less precipitation in the first five months than the long-term average.The summer months were much wetter, with 36.5% of all annual precipitation.
You can find more detailed information in the attachment.

Meteorological report for 2020

Meteorological report for December (Maribor) 

You could say: “Already seen orDéjà vu. ”As in 2019, in December 2020 we also experienced very high temperatures for this time of year.It was the same with the precipitation, which unfortunately was not snowy, which would be normal for this time.At the beginning of the month, we didn’t think it would be like that.The month began with low temperatures and snowfall to the lowlands.Unfortunately, it only lasted a week, and then the temperatures started to rise.Hope for lower temperatures and snow we got again after Christmas.Unfortunately, it was just a “false alarm” that lasted only three days and then again early spring temperatures.

The difference between the highest (23 th December) and the lowest (1st December) measured temperatures in the month was 18.5 °C, which is 9.1 °C less than last year, which is of course better than the year before, whenthe difference was as high as 27.6 °C.

The average monthly temperature was higher than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 1.62 °C and was 0.82 °C higher than the average for the long period, in 2019 was 2.53 °C,in 2018 was 0.29 °C higher.The long-term average for December is 0.8 °C in Maribor.The average temperature was fluctuated throughout the month.The difference between the average temperature of the coldest (1st December) and the warmest (24th December) day was 10.58 °C, in 2019 was as high as 15.09 °C.The differences between night and day temperatures ranging from 0.9 °C (9th December) to 10.4 °C (26th December).

In December, the average temperature was eleven times below the long-term average of the period (0.8 °C).The maximum temperature was twenty-one days below 5 °C, only one day below 0 °C and two days above 10 °C.The lowest temperature in December was - 7.1 ° C and the highest temperature was 11.4 °C, in 2019 even 19.5 °C.

In 2020, the average temperature was 0,83 °C higher than the long-term average (temperature measurement every 30 minutes). According to the ARSO measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours), by 0,50 °C. 

Precipitation data show that there was a lot of rainfall in December.The measuring device detected 130 mm of precipitation, which is twice as much as the long-term average (61 mm of precipitation).As compared to December 2019, 43% more precipitation fell (90.4 mm last year).

In 2020, 901.4 mm of precipitation fell, which is 8.4 mm more than the long-term average (893 mm).In comparison, in year 2019, 38 mm more precipitation fell during this time. 

 

The average relative humidity in December was 90.89 %, which is 8.24 % more than in November and 10.1 % more than in December 2019. Given more precipitation and temperature fluctuations, this is not a surprise. 

Meteorological report for November (Maribor) 

We had very interesting weather in November.In the first week of November, temperatures were above the long-term average, and in the last week below the average.Compared to November 2019, temperatures were much lower, on average as much as 1.5 °C, and there was also much less precipitation.

The difference between the highest (3th November) and the lowest (30th November) measured temperatures in the month was as high as 28.4 °C, which often happens this month.Last year the difference was 21.7 °C, and in 2018, similarly to this year, it was 28.2 °C.Interestingly, last year was also the highest and lowest temperature on the same day as this year.
The average monthly temperature was higher than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 5.29 °C and was 0.19 °C higher thanthe average for the long period.The long-term average for November is 5.1 °C in Maribor.The difference between the average temperature of the coldest (25th November) and the warmest(3th November) day was as high as 16.91 °C,which is due to large temperature differences between the first and last week.There were also great differences between night and day temperatures, ranging from 1 °C (27th November) to 14.1 °C (8th November).

In November, the daily average temperature was thirteen times below the average of the period from 1981 to 2010 (5.1 °C).The maximum temperature was nineteen days below 10 °C, four days between 10 and 15 °C and seven days above 15 °C.The lowest temperature in November was -5.3 °C and the highest temperature was 23.1 °C.
In the first eleven months, the average temperature was 0.84 °C higher than the long-term average.According to the ARSO measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours) was 0.46 °C higher.

Precipitation data show that there was very little rainfall in November.The measuring device detected only 35.8 mm of precipitation, which is half less as long as the long-term average (69 mm of precipitation).As compared to November 2019, 79.4 mm less precipitation fell.In the first eleven months, 60.6 mm less precipitation fell than the long-term average.In the eleven months, fell 92.7 % of the long-term average precipitation.For comparison: last year, 77.2 mm more precipitation fell during this time. 

The average relative humidity in November was 82.65 %, which is one percent less than in October and much less than in 2019 (90.48 %).Given more precipitation in November 2019, this was expected.

Ecosystems and ecoremediation 

The name of the course tells us that students get to know different ecosystems, including aquatic ones, such as: lake, pond, sea, peat bog, swamps, river, stream.In all types of aquatic ecosystems we talk about: the characteristics of ecosystem, the biodiversity of the ecosystem, their functions, who threatens the ecosystems and we learn the ecosystems in Slovenia on practical examples.The basic goal is to understand how aquatic ecosystems affect nature's water supply.All aquatic ecosystems have a strong impact on water supplies, which are very important when summer droughts occur.According to weather forecasts, our primary task must be to protect water resources for tomorrow and keep them clean and intact, as this is the only way they will be able to perform their function.
Of course, we were most interested in how we identify aquatic ecosystem pollution and how we can help them.We have learned that phytobenthos has always been a useful indicator of ecosystem pollution.The purity of surface waters and groundwater in Slovenia is evaluated by various ecological and chemical parameters.Students of the nature conservation technician program measure ecological and chemical parameters in the field and in the laboratory.We will also be able to use the knowledge of measurements in the analysis of irrigation water.

Natalija Horvat and students of the nature conservation technician program 

Meteorological report for October (Maribor)    

This October was very unusual.I could even say atypical.October is a month that is considered to be very stable in terms of temperature and precipitation.Well, it wasn't like that this year, as the temperature "jumped" all month as if we were at a rodeo.Even more unusual, was the precipitation.In the first part of the month we had the feeling that the rain would wash us away, but in the second part it fortunately calmed down so that the farmers could also do their work in the fields (harvesting silage corn, sowing cereals).Compared to October 2018 and 2019, temperatures were lower this year, but there was much more precipitation.
The difference between the highest (1st and 3rd October) and lowest (14th October) measured temperature in October was 21.8 °C, which is about two degrees less than last year.
The average monthly temperature was higher than the average for the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 11.25 °C and was 0.55 °C higher than the long-term average.The long-term average for October is 10.7 °C in Maribor.The average temperature fluctuated throughout the month.The difference between the average temperature of the coldest (12nd October) and the warmest (3th October) day was as high as 11.52 °C, which is similar to 2019. The differences between night and day temperatures also varied greatly,from 4.3 °C (15th October) to 19.1 °C (21th October).The data show that the changes were happening very quickly.Interestingly, even in 2019, the biggest difference was on 21st October.
In October, the daily average temperature was twelve times below the average of the period from 1981 to 2010 (10.7 °C).This was happening in the middle of the month when we had a period of eleven colder days.The maximum temperature was twenty days below 20 °C, which is not unusual for this time, but this has not happened in recent years.The maximum temperature was eleven days above 20 °C, but did not exceed 25 °C.The lowest temperature in October was 1.4 °C and the highest temperature was 23.2 °C.In the first ten months, the average temperature was 0.91 °C higher than the long-term average, which is still lower than in the last two years.According to the ARSO measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours) was 0.51 °C higher, which is more than a third less than in 2019. 

Precipitation data show that the weather was very turbulent in October.We first had half a month of heavy precipitation, which is atypical for October, and then we had dry weather.The measuring device detected 121 mm of precipitation, which is 55 % more than the long-term average (78 mm of precipitation).In the first 16 days, the measuring device detected 117.2 mm of precipitation, and in the next two weeks only 3.8 mm.In the first ten months, 27.4 mm less precipitation fell than the long-term average.In ten months, fell 82.37 % of the long-term average precipitation.In comparison, last year only 2.2 mm less precipitation fell during this time.Heavy precipitation made it difficult to work on agricultural land, delaying the harvest of autumn crops, sowing winter wheat and winter barley, and in some places they were not able to ensile grass. 

The average relative humidity in October was 83.60 %, which is almost 7 % higher than in September and slightly higher than in October 2019 (81.20 %).Given much more precipitation, this is expected. 

Water analysis   

We are Lena Kostanjšek and Lara Petrovič, students of the veterinary technician at the Biotechnical School Maribor and we live in a student dormitory.Recently, we have noticed that the water in the dormitory has an unusual taste, and in addition, some students have also complained of digestive problems.We had already done investigations in the previous school year and found that Escherichia coli was present in the water. We reported this to the dorm management, but we were turned down.They replied to us that they had already carried out water tests and found nothing.Half a year later, we were once again informed that the water had been inspected and that everything was supposed to be fine.Because of this, we decided to do the investigations again.This time we documented the process.
First, we prepared test tubes and suitable caps for taking water samples.Four tubes were already sterilized, and the caps were washed, dried, packed in sterilization bags, and sterilized in a dry sterilizer at 134 °C for 15 minutes.
We took water samples on the same day as we prepared the media.We took the samples by not touching the inside of the cap or the top edge of the tube.We filled them up to ¾ and closed them.
We took samples from: the bathroom and kitchen on the 2nd floor, in the bathroom on the 4th floor and in the dressing room in the gym.

In the laboratory we prepared all the necessary tools: burner, lighter, pipette, 4 sterile pipetting tips (10 ml), 4 special media for Escherichia coli, 4 media with agar and 4 media with blood agar.We also used a stand for the test tubes. 


Workflow:
1. We first lit a burner that serves to disinfect the air to destroy microorganisms in the workplace.
2. We then marked the media. Figure: Marked media.
Each of the samples was applied to three different media.We marked them by writing what the medium was like, what type of sample we applied, and where the sample was taken.
3. We continued assembling the pipette.We made sure the pipette remained sterile.We pipetted only one sample with one nozzle.

4. We opened the media and applied 1 ml of water sample to each.

Figure: Application of the sample to the medium with blood agar.


4. We opened the media and applied 1 ml of water sample to each.

Figure: Application of the sample to a special medium.


5. The media were taken to an incubator and incubated for 72 hours at 37 °C.

Figure: Samples in an incubator.


RESULTS

1 – SAMPLES OF WATER FROM BATHROOM ON THE 2ND FLOOR


In this case, we see that no bacteria has grown on any medium.


2 - SAMPLES OF WATER FROM THE KITCHEN ON THE 2ND FLOOR


Here we notice that some bacteria have grown.Since we see the results on a specific medium, we can say that some Escherichia coli is present in this sample.

3 - SAMPLES OF WATER FROM BATHROOM ON THE 4TH FLOOR


In this sample, we see that colonies are present on all media.We can confirm that Escherichia coli is present in the sample.

4 - SAMPLES OF WATER FROM GYM LOCKER ROOM 


In these samples, we see minimal bacterial growth on agar and blood agar, but not on special medium, so Escherichia coli is probably not present here. 

COMPARISON OF RESULTS


In conclusion, we decided to compare these results with the results of the first investigations.As we can see, in the first test, the special medium showed the presence of Escherichia coli in all samples, it is also evident that the colonies that have grown are larger and more numerous.The amount of Escherichia coli in the water has obviously decreased, but it is still present, which is a problem for us.

Picture: Samples from the first test (bathroom 2nd floor, kitchen 2nd floor, bathroom 4th floor, dressing room in the gym).

 
The National Institute of Public Health says:“The presence of Escherichia coli in drinking water reliably proves that the water has been contaminated.According to the Drinking Water Regulations, bacteria Escherichia coli are classified as microbiological parameters.The limit value for Escherichia coli in drinking water is 0/100 ml. "


Analyzed by: Lena Kostanjšek and Lara Petrovič 

Mentor: Kristina Dolinar Paulič 

Water well

The main goal of our project is to construction a solar powered irrigation system. The system will be installed on the school estate. Since a large part of our estate is located in a water protection area, we first had to obtain a permit from the company Mariborski vodovod to drill a pumping well on part of the estate and arrange an irrigation system. We got permission without any problems. It was determined that the location is in the 3rd water protection area, so it was necessary to prepare an expert assessment of the drilling site, then obtain a permit for groundwater research and water consent. For our project, she did it Judita Črepinšek from the company GIH, geology and hydrogeology. Given the composition of the rock and its experience, there was a possibility that we would not discover water at this site. Nevertheless, we decided to drill.
In order to obtain a Groundwater exploration permit, we had to provide the following information: well location; what will be the size of the irrigation area; what will be the water pumping regime; data on the crop to be irrigated, estimated daily and annual water consumption, number of irrigation days and what irrigation system we will use. At the beginning of June, the Ministry of the Environment (Directorate for Water) issued a Permit for groundwater research to a depth of 50 meters.
After receiving the permit, we selected the best contractor. Because the well must be made professionally, we chose the company Vrtine Palir, which has many years of experience in this field.
On Monday, 14th September, 2020, the company began with work. The professional staff of the company presented to the students how they perform drilling, what mechanization they use and what problems they encounter at work. At first, the drilling was done quickly, which gave us hope that the water would be discovered soon. The initial optimism quickly faded as the drill bit was drilled into an impermeable layer of marl (at a depth of 18 meters). Unfortunately, the layer was too thick, so water was not detected when drilling to a depth of 50 meters. Of course, we have not given up, but we are looking for a new way to get water for irrigation.  

Tap water or bottled water? 

One of the themes of the project is water. With the students of the nature conservation technician program we decided to talk about what makes more sense, to drink tap water or to drink bottled water.
We first read the story of bottled water from Cleveland, USA, where they proved that bottled water was of poorer quality than tap water. In the following, we talked about why it makes more sense to drink tap water in Slovenia. The quality of water in Slovenia is very good, so it is pointless to buy bottled water. If we drink bottled water, the problem is not only the quality of the water, but also the issue of environmental protection. We use oil and drinking water to make the bottle, and many bottles end up in nature or are not recycled. If we chose tap water, we chose quality. We can also save a lot of money with the tap water, as tap water is very cheap in Slovenia.
Certain things are easier to understand if we present them with numbers, we also tried to show the dilemma of tap water or bottled water with numbers.

If a bottle of water costs 40 cents and you buy it every day, it costs 8 euros a month and about 140 euros a year. During this time you drank about 365 bottles of water (0.5 l) which is 182.5 liters of water.
 1000 liters of tap water in Maribor costs 0.8144 euros. So we would pay about 15 cents a year for 182.5 liters of water. The price of water is really ridiculously low considering what kind of wealth it is.
 You would pay 800 euros for 1000 liters of water in a 0.5 liter bottle. Water from a 0.5 l bottle is therefore 1000 times more expensive than tap water.

There should be no more dilemmas about which water to drink. The quality of tap water is higher, but the financial and environmental aspects are also important.
"Tap water is still the best," says Marjetka Založnik, expert for a health food. 

What do students say about this?

 

I prefer to use reusable bottles. The water does not taste like plastic after a few hours. We buy bottled water, but only for a trip. In any case, reusable bottles are more environmentally friendly, even cheaper, as they can be used for a longer period of time, but it is also healthier because you can pour water from the tap at home. Bottled water has been packaged for a long time and we don’t know what substances are in the bottles.

Lučka Juhart

 

I don’t like water from a plastic bottle because it often changes taste. If I buy water in a store, I prefer to choose a bottle because we can recycle it multiple times, which is definitely better for the environment. The difference is also that the bottle can be reused. Of course, tap water is still the healthiest. My opinion is, if you buy bottled water, drink the water and refill it with tap water.

Lan Pšeničnik

 

I think that bottled water should be bought by those who do not have guaranteed drinking water from the tap. Buying bottled water seems to me to be a big waste of money and an additional burden on the environment. If you are buying bottled water, buy the water in the bottle, not the plastic bottle, because it can be used multiple times.

Rok Caf

 

When we read the statistics and various analyzes, we come to the result that bottled water is a high cost, resulting in the pollution that causes the most damage to nature. People are still unaware that by purchasing we are supporting large corporations and enriching a handful of people.
 As a result, many animals die due to plastic dumping. They also add a lot of harmful substances to make the water last longer. I would rather use tap water and use bottles instead of plastic bottles. Let’s keep our biggest pearl we hav

Nejc Repič

 

Meteorological report for September (Maribor) 

In September, temperatures were higher than the long-term average. Compared to September last year, temperatures were higher this year and precipitation was slightly higher. September was a very unusual month in terms of precipitation, as there was virtually no precipitation for a whole month, and then fell 97 liters of rain per square meter in four days.
The difference between the highest (15th September) and the lowest (27th September) measured temperature in the month was 25.6 °C, which is slightly less than the year before, when the difference was more than 27 °C.
 The average monthly temperature was higher than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 17.24 °C and it was 1.64 °C higher than the long-term average, which is one degree warmer than in September 2019. The long-term average for September is 15.6 °C in Maribor. The average temperature increased at the beginning of the month, but then decreased significantly in the second half of the month, which was felt especially in the morning, when the temperature dropped below 5 °C. The difference between the average temperature of the coldest (26th
September) and the warmest (15th September) day was as high as 12.06 °C. Differences between night and day temperatures also fluctuated greatly, from 4.9 °C (28th September) to 16 °C (21st September). The changes were happening very fast.
 In September, the daily average temperature was nine times below the average of the period from 1981 to 2010 (15.6 °C). The maximum temperature was only four days below 20 °C, for fifteen days it was above 25 °C, but the temperature did not exceed 30 °C. The lowest temperature in September was 3.8 °C and the highest temperature was 29.4 °C. In the first nine months, the average temperature was 0.97 °C higher than the long-term average, in August 2019 it was 1.10 °C higher. According to the ARSO measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours), was 0.57 °C higher, and in August 2019, it was 0.78 °C higher. 

Precipitation data show that was more than a third more precipitation in September than in August (31 mm). In September, slightly more precipitation fell than the long-term average. The measuring device detected 106.4 mm of precipitation, the long-term average was 99 mm of precipitation. Compared to September 2019, it was fell 6.6 mm more precipitation. In the nine months, 70.4 mm less precipitation fell than the long-term average. For comparison, last year 83.2 mm more precipitation fell during this time. 

The average relative humidity in September was 76.42 %, which is less than in August. Given that there was no precipitation for most of the month, this is no surprise. 

 

Meteorological report for August (Maribor) 

We had above-average temperatures in August, which didn’t bother us too much, considering we had a cold and wet July. Precipitation was less in August than in July. In terms of temperatures and precipitation, this August was similar to last year.
 The difference between the highest (22nd August) and the lowest (26th August) measured temperature in the month was 19.2 °C.
The average monthly temperature was higher than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 21.78 °C and was 1.58 °C higher than the long-term average. The long-term average for August is 20.2 °C in Maribor. The average temperature fluctuated throughout the month. The difference between the average temperature of the coldest (5th August) and the warmest (22nd August) day was as high as 8.83 °C. Differences between night and day temperatures also fluctuated greatly, from 5 °C (5th August) to 17.3 °C (26th August). Similar differences occurredin August 2019.

In August, the daily average temperature was seven times below the average of the period from 1981 to 2010 (20.2 °C). The maximum temperature for only six days did not exceed 25 °C, for twenty-five days it was above 25 °C, of which thirteen days it was above 30 °C. In August, we had one heat wave in Maribor (the temperature must be at least three days above 30 °C), which lasted for seven days. Fortunately, temperatures only slightly exceeded 30 °C. The lowest temperature in August was 13.4 °C and the highest temperature was 32.6 °C. In the first eight months, the average temperature was 0.87 °C higher than the long-term average. It was 1.12 °C higher at the same time last year. According to the ARSO measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours), was 0.47 °C. Last year at the same time it was higher for 0.85 °C. 

Precipitation data show that was less precipitation in August than in July. In August fell only 44.7 % of the July precipitation. The measuring device detected 75.4 mm of precipitation, which is much less than the long-term average (112 mm of precipitation). Compared to July 2020, fell 93.2 mm less precipitation. In the first eight months, 77.8 mm less precipitation fell than the long-term average. In eight months, fell only 56.9 % of the long-term average precipitation. For comparison, almost 90 mm more precipitation fell during this time last year. 

The average relative humidity in August was 77.25 %, which is slightly more than in July (72.13 %) and more than in 2019 (75.43 %). Given less precipitation, this is a surprise. 

 

Meteorological report for July (Maribor) 


Where was July this year? Farmers, who were supposed to harvest crops from the fields and mow the grass, were certainly wondering where the real summer was. Those who prefer colder weather, however, were certainly more satisfied. The high temperatures typical of July were practically non-existent, and precipitation occurred throughout the month. Compared to July last year, temperatures were lower and there was much more precipitation this year.
The difference between the highest (28th July) and the lowest (8th July) measured temperature in the month was as high as 23.8 °C.
The average monthly temperature was slightly lower than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 20.82 °C and was 0.18 °C lower than the long-term average. The long-term average for July is 21.0 °C in Maribor. The average temperature fluctuated throughout the month. The difference between the average temperature of the coldest (17th July) and the warmest (31st July) day was as high as 9.71 °C. Differences between night and day temperatures also fluctuated greatly, from 6.6 °C (3rd July) to 18.6 °C (6th July).
In July, the daily average temperature was sixteen times below the average of the period from1981 to 2010(21.0 °C). Despite the lower average temperature, the maximum temperatures were quite high. The temperature was twenty-two days above 25 °C, of which ten days above 30 °C. In July, we had one heat wave in Maribor (the temperature must be at least three days above 30 °C), which lasted for five days. The lowest temperature in July was 10.2 °C and the highest temperature was 34 °C. In the first seven months, the average temperature was 0.76 °C higher than the long-term average. According to the ARSO measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours) was 0.38 °C higher. 

Precipitation data show that was much more precipitation in July than in June. There was twice as much precipitation in July as in June, and at the same time there was 79 % more precipitation than the long-term average. The measuring device detected 168.6 mm of precipitation, which is much more than the long-term average (94 mm of precipitation). Compared to July 2019, there was 29 % more precipitation, and compared to July 2018, three times more. In the first seven months, there was 41.2 mm less precipitation than the long-term average. For comparison, last year there was 100 mm more precipitation during this time, which means that there was 100 l / m2 more precipitation. 

The average relative humidity in July was 72.12 %, which is slightly less than in June (73.12 %). Given much more precipitation, even more humidity was to be expected. 

Meteorological report for June (Maribor) 


This year, the weather in June was the complete opposite of June 2019. More precipitation and much lower temperatures. Temperatures were similar to those of June 2018. Despite frequent precipitation, the lack of precipitation continued compared to the long-term average. Due to the lack of precipitation, summer droughts are still relevant, especially in areas where sandy soils predominate.
The difference between the highest (27 th and 28 th June) and the lowest (11th June) measured temperature in the month was 21.7 °C, which is slightly less than the measured difference in May 2020 and June 2019, when it was about 23 °C. Throughout the month, it was happening that temperatures were rising rapidly and also falling rapidly. Such changes cause problems to plants,especially fruit vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant), which has also been seen in the garden.
The average monthly temperature was lower than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 18.82 °C and it was 0.18 °C lower than the long-term average. The long-term average for June is 19.0 °C in Maribor. In June 2019, the temperature was 3.41 °C higher than the long-term average, and in June 2018 it was 0.87 °C higher. We can see that this June really deviated in temperature, which was noticeable especially in plant growth. Such weather was in June twenty years ago, and in the last ten years we have been accustomed to a hotter June.
 In June, the daily average temperature was fourteen times above the long-term average (19.0 °C). The maximum temperature was twenty-five days above 20 °C, seventeen days above 25 °C and four days above 30 °C. Given the maximum temperatures, it would be difficult to say that the temperatures were below average, but this is exactly what happened due to the temperature fluctuations. At the end of the month, we also experienced one mild heat wave (temperatures above 30 °C), which lasted exactly three days, as a condition for talking about a heat wave. 
The lowest temperature in June was 9.8 °C and the highest temperature was 31.5 °C, which is less than last year, when we recorded the highest temperature of 35.8 °C. In the first six months, the average temperature was 0.92 °C higher than the long-term average, which is less than last year, when it was higher by 1.14 °C and more than in 2018, when it was higher by 0.69 °C. The warming of the atmosphere continues.
 According to ARSO the measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours), was 0.55 °C higher, in 2019 by 0.87 °C, and in 2018 by 0.50 °C. 

Precipitation data show that there was less precipitation again. Many people will raise their eyebrows at this statement, as we had the feeling that all the time it was just raining. There were as many as 16 rainy days. The data reveals that there was often only short-term rain. Old people would say, just enough for rust to form on plants.

 The measuring device detected 85.2 mm of precipitation, which is less than the long-term average (107 mm of precipitation), last year 73.6 mm of precipitation fell. In the first six months, was 115.8 mm less precipitation fell than the long-term average, and last year at the same time was 21.8 mm more precipitation fell than the long-term average. This year, just under 70 % of precipitation fell compared to the long-term average. 


The average relative humidity in June was 73.10 %, which is 7 % more than in May. As a result, more precipitation fell than the month before. However, the humidity fluctuated a lot, which is not unusual, considering the temperature fluctuations throughout the month. 


Presentation of the topics of the international project at the information day for the program nature conservation technician 

This year, at the information days, the students showed the visitors a part of what they are learning and doing within the nature conservation techniques program. At the same time, they presented the topics they are working on in the international project Let it rain! A Solar Powered Irrigation System Built by Students. Thus, they presented water experiments and an experiment in which they showed visitors how important is soil type for water retention during drought.
Luka K., Martin, Lučka and Lan presented the differences between clay and sandy soils and substrate from the store in terms of water absorption and permeability, as it is very important how much water the soil can retain, as this water is a valuable reserve for plants in case drought.  
Rok and Luka P. experimentally showed where all the water is and how much it is. In the end, we were able to see how little drinking water we still have available on Earth. We cannot irrigate with polluted water.
Luka K., Martin and Lan presented an experiment in which they showed that we also use electronic devices in our analyzes. Using an oximeter and a Vernier, they presented how we measure oxygen in running water.
At the end, the students prepared a presentation on what virtual water is. Visitors had to figure out how much water is needed to grow and process agricultural produce. The task proved to be very demanding. At the presentation of the results, however, we could hear sighs of astonishment. Visitors could not believe how much water is used to make a cup of tea or coffee, for one egg, for 1 kg of beef, one cotton T-shirt, etc.
Thanks to Zala, Lučka, Luka K, Luka P., Martin, Lana, Rok and prof. Natalija Horvat for help in carrying out the information day. 

Meteorological report for May (Maribor) 

This year, the weather picture in May was the complete opposite of last May. Much less precipitation and also higher temperatures. Precipitation was 100 liters per square meter less than in May 2019. The lack of precipitation continued compared to the long-term average. There is practically no water supply, so nothing good is promised for the summer, especially if heat waves occur.
The difference between the highest (9 th May) and the lowest (6 th May) measured temperature in the month was 23.1 °C, which is slightly less than the measured difference in May 2019, when it was 24.2 °C and slightly more than in May 2018, when it was 20.5 °C. The fact that a very rapid temperature change took place will be striking, as we recorded the highest and lowest temperatures of the month in three days. Such changes cause problems to plants,especially fruit vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant).
The average monthly temperature was lower than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 14.78 °C and it was 1.02 °C lower than the long-term average. The long-term average for May is 15.8 °C in Maribor. In May 2019, the temperature was 3.04 °C lower than the long-term average, and in May 2018 it was 1.87 °C higher.
In May, the daily average temperature was ten times above the long-term average (15.8 °C). The maximum temperature was nineteen days above 20 °C, four days above 25 °C. The lowest temperature in May was 4.6 °C and the highest temperature was 27.7 °C, which is slightly higher than last year. In the first five months, the average temperature was 1.14 °C higher than the long-term average, which is much more than last year, when it was higher by 0.69 °C. The warming of the atmosphere therefore continues.
 According to ARSO, the measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours), was 0.73 °C higher, last year in this period by 0.43 °C. 

Precipitation data show that there was less precipitation again. Last year, twice as much precipitation fell in May as the long-term average. This year, just under two-thirds of the precipitation fell, even though there were 14 rainy days. The measuring device detected 57.6 mm of precipitation, which is less than the long-term average (83 mm precipitation), last year as much as 158.4 mm of precipitation fell. In the first five months, was 94 mm less precipitation fell than the long-term average, and last year at the same time was 55.2 mm more precipitation fell than the long-term average. This year, almost 150 liters of precipitation per square meter less fell than last year. 

The average relative humidity in May was 66.40 %, which is 10 % more than in April. Given the higher humidity, we would expect more precipitation, but in reality only 2 mm more precipitation fell. 

We learned about solar energy 

Picture: Klara Čretnik

Solar energy is an inexhaustible source of energy. The solar energy that reaches the earth's surface is 15,000 times greater than the total energy consumption of mankind.
 One of the important topics of the project is also the use of solar energy. In the subject of sustainable development, we learned with the students of the first year of the programs of agricultural technicians and nature conservation technicians about the increasingly important renewable energy source in the world. In Slovenia, the situation regarding the use of solar energy is worse, but it is improving. Data on the situation show that the share of electricity produced from solar power plants in Slovenia is 1.7% in 2018.
However, the number of family power plants up to 11 kW has been increasing in recent years.
 For an introduction, we watched short films about self-sufficiency in electricity, about a solar power plant and solar collectors.
 
Film: Solar Panels For Home Review.
 
We briefly learned about ways to harness solar energy in buildings. They learned about the passive and active way of harnessing solar energy. 

1. Passive use of solar energy

 Thick wall insulation on both sides, lighting and ventilation of rooms, as many windows as possible, greenhouses, conservatory.
 
2. Active use of solar energy

 Active use of solar energy means use with the help of solar collectors. We mostly use flat collectors and vauukum collectors.In solar collectors, water is heated - to prepare hot water, air - to heat the premises (a lot of collectors are needed). 

3. Photovoltaics

 Photovoltaics is the technology of converting solar energy directly into electricity. The conversion process takes place via solar cells, which are most often made of silicon, as they have the highest efficiency (15-25%). Solar cells are connected in solar modules, which can be independent (obtaining electricity for the home) or connected to the grid (solar power plants).
 
 We learned where we can use all the electricity produced by photovoltaics:
 
 • supply of remote settlements, buildings,
 • supply of remote devices (lighthouses, satellites),
 • transmission to the electricity network,
 • use in products such as e.g. computers, clocks, calculators, electronic scales,
 • garden lamps, fountains, street lamps,
 • traffic signals, battery charging,
 • water purification, irrigation of plantations,… 

Finally, they learned about the advantages and disadvantages of using solar energy.
 

The advantages of solar energy are:

 • is a renewable energy source,
 • electricity production does not pollute the environment (less CO2, reduces the greenhouse effect, is quiet and visually undisturbed),
 • energy production and consumption are in the same place (lower energy transmission losses),
 • photovoltaics enables the supply of electricity to remote areas and remote devices,
 • solar cells can replace batteries,
 • low maintenance costs.
 
 The disadvantages of solar energy are:
 

 • fluctuations in production due to different solar radiation of individual locations,
 • the price of electricity is much more expensive,
 • high initial investment,
 • solar cell recycling,
 • If a fire occurs, toxic gases are formed. 

Meteorological report for April (Maribor) 

You could say nothing new. Temperatures again above the long-term average, but this was not an obstacle to not experiencing frost again. Organic apple varieties suffered the most damage. Topaz and Opal, which are earlier varieties - about 90% of the damage. In the intensive orchard, Idared suffered the greatest damage - up to 95% of the damage, while the Gala, Jonagold and Zlati delišes varieties suffered around 50% of the damage or crop failure. Plantations with old apple varieties were not affected at all.
Precipitation was also slightly lower this month than the long-term average. Interestingly, this was also happening in 2018, while last year the weather was within the long-term average.
 The difference between the highest (17th April) and the lowest (2nd April) measured temperature in the month was as high as 31 °C, which is less than the measured difference in April 2019, when it was 27.7 °C and in April 2018, when it was 28.8 °C.
The average monthly temperature was higher than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 12.17 °C and was 1.37 °C higher than the long-term average. The long-term average for April is 10.8 °C in Maribor. By comparison, in April 2019 the average temperature was 11.41 °C, and in April 2018 it was as high as 15.14 °C. The data show that the temperature is constantly too high, so it is not surprising that there is frost. The trees bloom earlier, followed by 2 to 3 days with low night temperatures and damage is inevitable. The solution is anti-frost spraying, but the cost of installation is very high. This system can then also be used for irrigation in the summer.
However, there were consistently high differences between night and day temperatures, ranging from 8.9 °C (20th April) to 22.5 °C (16th April). The biggest difference happened in a very short time (in 4 days).
In April, the daily average temperature was eleven times below the average of the period from 1981 to 2010 (10.8 °C). The maximum temperature was only one day below 10 °C, and on the other hand it was above 20 °C for sixteen days, three days even above 25 °C. The minimum temperature was four days below the freezing point. The lowest temperature in April was - 4.8 °C, and the highest temperature was 26.2 °C. In 2018 and 2019, the nights were on average slightly warmer (0 °C and 2.2 °C) and the daytime temperatures were similar. 
In the first four months, the average temperature was 1.68 °C higher than the long-term average (measurements every 30 minutes), which is slightly more than last year at the same time (1.62 °C) and 0.11 °C lower than in March 2020. According to the ARSO measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours) was 1.25 °C higher, last year the average temperature at that time was 1.36 °C higher than the long-term average. However, the average temperature decreased compared to March 2020, when it was 1.47 °C higher. 

Precipitation data show that April was above the average with precipitation compared to the first three months, but unfortunately there was still less precipitation than the long-term average. The measuring device detected 55.2 mm of precipitation, which is slightly less than the long-term average (60 mm precipitation). There were only four real rainy days. The lack of precipitation has been occurring for all four months of this year. So far, only 63.9% of the long-term average precipitation has fallen (68.6 mm less). This deficit is already known, and in the summer months it will only intensify if there is no heavy precipitation. 

The average relative humidity in April was 55.84%, which is a very low value for April. In 2018, it amounted to 62%, and in 2019 to 70%. However, the difference was quite large, from 39% to over 80%.  

 

Greetings from Maribor

Wir sind jetzt echt im einigen ganz andern Zeiten. Vorher haben wir uns immer gewünscht, das wir keine Schule haben, das wir immer zu hausen werden und das wir einfach frei sind. Jetzt kann mal sehen, das das nicht so einfach ist, wir brauchen echte Kontakte und nicht diese über dem Handy oder Computer. Aber wen es so sein muss und wird dann alles besser und normal, dann überleben wir das.  Nach der Epidemie glaube ich, dass wir mehr auf dem physischen kontakt geben, und lasen die Geräte schlafen.  Es ist nicht einfach, aber zusammen können wir das durch geben und dann sehen wir uns, hier ins Slowenien, es wird toll, das verspreche ich euch, sie merken sich dieses Ort für immer, das garantiere ich euch.
Seid alle gesund, passt auf euch, macht schön die Schule weiter, ich habe gehört das die langsam los geht’s und dann sehen wir uns im kurzen Zeit. Dazu lade ich noch ein slowenisches Song, für Motivation.

https://youtu.be/r7gFNaGYEs8

Ivan

The picture was drawn by Klara.

We are all going through tough times right now but we believe that together we can make it and successfully defeat the virus. We wish everyone luck, health and patience through this stressful situation. Stay safe.

Lilijana, Biljana

I send you nice greetings from Slovenia. We wish you to remain happy and full of hope for better times. Above all, stay healthy.

Tadej

You will never have so much free time again. :)

Mojca

 

 

Meteorological report for March

March was very turbulent in terms of temperatures. Temperatures went up and down and up again, which was happening throughout the month. Interestingly, this was also happening in 2019 and partly in 2018. We even had a snow day.
The difference between the highest (12th March) and the lowest (16th March) measured temperature in the month was 26.5 °C, which is much less than the measured difference in March 2018, when it was as high as 36.1 °C. However, this difference happened in four days this year. Which is really fast.
The average monthly temperature was higher than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 7.04 °C, and it was 1.04 °C higher than the long-term average. The long-term average for March is 6 °C in Maribor. By comparison, in March 2018 the average temperature was 3.35 °C and in March 2019 it was as high as 8.59 °C. Compared to recent years, March will hardly surprise us with anything. In recent years, we have experienced a below-average March, a fairly normal March, and an above-average March.
There were also great differences between night and day temperatures, ranging from 2.5 °C (26th March) to 20.8 °C (17th March). The data obtained show that the changes were very fast.
In March, the daily average temperature was twelve times below the average of the period from 1981 to 2010 (6 °C). The maximum temperature was eight days below 10 °C, two days even below 3 °C, and five days above 20 °C. The minimum temperature was twelve days below the freezing point. 
The lowest temperature in March was - 4,5 °C and the highest temperature was 22 °C (same as in 2019).
 In the first three months, the average temperature was 1.79 °C higher than the long-term average (measurements every 30 minutes). According to the ARSO measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours), was 1.47 °C higher.

Precipitation data show that March was below the average with precipitation, as less precipitation fell than the long-standing average. The measuring device detected 30.6 mm of precipitation, which is almost half less than the long-term average (57 mm precipitation). It is interesting that the device detected the rain quite a few times, but the real precipitation days were only three. Precipitation has been occurring for all three months of this year. 

The average relative humidity in March was 65.62 %, which is not surprising given the smaller amount of precipitation. However, the difference was quite large, from just under 42 % to over 88 %.

 

Meteorological report for February 

You could say, nothing new. As January ended, February continued, with above average temperatures and relatively low precipitation. February was a copy of last year. The only difference was that this year was even warmer. I can say it was a real spring month. Only the mornings, which were a bit colder, reminded us of the winter month. We did, however, welcome another snow day. “Amazingly”, we had two real snow days throughout the winter.
The difference between the highest (1st February) and the lowest (8th February) measured temperature in the month was 23.4 °C. Last year the difference was as high as 31 °C. From this, we can see that last year we had cold nights and mornings and high daily temperatures. This year, though, the nights were warmer.
The average monthly temperature was significantly higher than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 5.82 °C and it was 4.12 °C higher than the long-term average. By comparison, in February 2018 the average temperature was - 1.41 °C and in February 2019 it was 4.7 °C. The long-term average for February is 1.7 °C in Maribor.
 In February, the average temperature was never below the freezing point (0 °C), the same applies to the maximum temperature. The minimum temperature was fifteen times above the freezing point and in year 2019 nine times.
 The difference in average temperature between the coldest (7th February) and the warmest (1st February) day was 9.05 °C.
In February, the average temperature was only twice below the long-term average (1.7 °C). The maximum temperature was twenty-three days above 10 °C, seven days above 15 °C. The minimum daily temperature was 6.7 °C, which is still a fairly high temperature for the winter month.
 The lowest temperature in February was - 5,5 °C and the highest temperature was 17,9 °C. Compared to February 2018, the minimum temperature was - 20,2 °C, the highest was 11,58 °C, in February 2019 the minimum temperature was only - 8 °C and the highest was as high as 23 °C. 

Precipitation data show that the trend of falling precipitation is still continuing. It was slightly better than in January, but still less than long-term average. Snowfall has only been experienced once, therefore drought is expected in March, especially in cereals (barley, wheat). In many fields, cereals have already turned yellow, which is due to high temperatures and lack of precipitation.
 In February there was less precipitation than a long-term average. The measuring device detected that there was 31 mm of precipitation, slightly less than the long-term average (38 mm of precipitation). Most of the precipitation fell within a day (26 February - 22.6 mm). In February 2018, dropped 78.6 mm of precipitation and 106.8 cm of snow, and in February 2019, dropped only 16.2 mm of precipitation.

The average relative humidity in February was 66.10 %, which is much less than in January (84.55 %) and similar to February 2019. In February 2018 it was as high as 86.42 %. 

Meteorological report for January 

January is the central month of the meteorological winter and usually the coldest month of the year, which is not the case in recent years when temperatures are above average. This year showed that January will be below average with an average temperature of - 0.59 °C (first 27 days). But the last four days have been above average. The average temperature at this time was 4.74 °C, which is more typical of the month of March.
The difference between the highest (28th January) and the lowest (7th - 24th January) measured temperature in the month was 21.2 °C. Historically, these are large temperature differences, but unfortunately in recent years such a difference is quite normal.
The average monthly temperature was slightly higher than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 0.10 °C and it was 0.20 °C higher than the long-term average. The long-term average for January is - 0.1 °C in Maribor. For comparison, in January 2018 the average temperature was 2.87 °C.
 The difference in average temperature between the coldest (22nd January) and the warmest (31st January) day was 12.56 °C
In January, the average temperature was fifteen times below the long-term average (-0.1 °C). The maximum temperature was six days above 10 °C and only four days below 0 °C. The lowest temperature in January was - 8.1 °C and the highest temperature was 13.1 °C, which is similar to 2019. It is worrying that in January there are more days with temperature above 10 °C and fewer days with temperature below 0 °C. At least the mornings were cold. 

Precipitation data show that there was extremely little of precipitation in January. The problem is that there was no snowfall. Snow represents the water supply for the spring months. We recorded only one snow day. The measuring device detected 4.6 mm of precipitation, which is less as long as the long-term average (35 mm of precipitation). This has been the month with the least precipitation in the last two years. There were five rainy days. In January 2018, fell 44.4 mm of precipitation and in January 2019, fell 28.8 mm of precipitation. 

The average relative humidity in January was 84.55%, which is less than in January 2018 (85.28 %) and more than in January 2019 (77.21 %). Given the very low of precipitation, this is quite a surprise. In January there was a significant fluctuation in air humidity, with only 56 % to 97 %. 

How do we analyze water samples?


For a successful irrigation system it’s important that we have good quality water. The water shouldn’t contain any chemicals that could affect the plants. The pH is very important as well because the waters condition shouldn’t be too hard. 
Because of all these reasons we decided that we present how different water analyses are taken to students from the primary school Miklavž na Dravskem polju and the primary school France Prešern Maribor on their tehnical day. We presented them simple measurements  that you can also do at home and some harder and more complicated ones for which we need special meters.
The water analysis presented students from the program nature conservation technician. 
Zala and Luka presented which water analysis we perform, how to find out that the waters condition is hard and which pH value has the water especially if it’s contaminated. They showed which analyzes we can peroform with a special case for analyzing water and the ground. They also invited the other students to help them peroform the analyzes for the water conditions and pH value. They took the work very exact and that’s the most important part. 
The basic water analyzes that were shown by the students can be used at home to check the waters quality for irrigation. 
Mihael, Ali and Luka demonstrated how with the help of an electronic meter (Vernier) the amount of nitrogen can be measured. 

We presented the exchange in Hamburg

On the 19th of December, me and my classmate Lilijana presented our project Let it rain! A Solar Powered Irrigation System Built by Students. Our purpose was to present our week in Germany and to briefly present the meaning of the whole project. We showed photos through a presentation and told all the funny and interesting things that happened to us. We hope that classmates liked our presentation and that we inspired someone for the project.
All of us, who participated in the exchange can agree, that we would love to turn back time, if we could and relive the entire week, because we met so many new people and really banded with each other.
We also fell in love with Hamburg and would love to visit it again.
Biljana Milčev 

On the 19th of December, me and my classmate Lilijana presented our project Let it rain! A Solar Powered Irrigation System Built by Students. Our purpose was to present our week in Germany and to briefly present the meaning of the whole project. We showed photos through a presentation and told all the funny and interesting things that happened to us. We hope that classmates liked our presentation and that we inspired someone for the project. 
All of us, who participated in the exchange can agree, that we would love to turn back time, if we could and relive the entire week, because we met so many new people and really banded with each other. 
We also fell in love with Hamburg and would love to visit it again.

Biljana Milčev 

Meteorological report for December (Maribor) 

Very high temperatures continued in December. December also experienced heavy rainfall, unfortunately not the snow that would be normal for this time. We only had one snow day in December. However, temperatures varied greatly throughout the month. Compared to December last year, temperatures were much higher this year (on average of more than 2 °C), there was also more rainfall this year.
The difference between the highest (17 th December) and the lowest (30th December) measured temperatures in the month was as high as 27.6 °C, which is happening more and more often. Last year, the difference was 26.4 °C.
The average monthly temperature was higher than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 3.33 °C and was 2.53 °C higher than the average for the long period. 
The long-term average for December is 0.8 °C in Maribor. The average temperature was fluctuated throughout the month. The difference between the average temperature of the coldest (29th December) and the warmest (18th December) day was as high as 15.09 °C. The differences between night and day temperatures ranging from 1.9 °C (5th December) to 14.3 °C (31st December).
 In December, the average temperature was ten times below the long-term average of the period from (0.8 °C). The maximum temperature was only nine days below 5 °C and twelve days above 10 °C. The lowest temperature in December was - 8.1 °C and the highest temperature was 19.5 °C. In 2018, it was colder, especially in mid-December, when temperatures were between - 7 and - 10 °C.
In 2019, the average temperature was 1.41 °C higher than the long-term average (temperature measurement every 30 minutes). According to the ARSO measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours), by 1.14 °C. 

Precipitation data show that there was very heavy rainfall in December. The measuring device detected 90.4 mm of precipitation, which was one third more than as long as the long-term average (61 mm of precipitation). As compared to December 2018, there were eight times more precipitation (11.6 mm last year).
 In 2019, 46 mm more precipitation fell than the long-term average (893 mm). 939 mm of precipitation fell. In comparison, in year 2018, 154.4 mm less precipitation fell during this time. 

The average relative humidity in December was 80.88 %, which is 9.6 % less than in November and is slightly less than in 2018 (81.98 %). Given more precipitation, this was surprise, that the humidity was so low. 

 

Meteorological report for November (Maribor) 

There were very high temperatures and heavy rainfall in November. However, temperatures varied greatly throughout the month. Compared to November last year, temperatures were higher this year (on average by 1 °C), there was also more rainfall this year.
 The difference between the highest (3th November) and the lowest (30th November) measured temperatures in the month was as high as 21.7 °C, which often happens in November. Last year, the difference was even 28.2 °C.
The average monthly temperature was higher than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 7.82 °C and was 2.72 °C higher than the average for the long period.
The long-term average for November is 5.1 °C in Maribor. The average temperature was fluctuated throughout the month. The difference between the average temperature of the coldest (30th November) and the warmest (3th November) day was as high as 10.78 °C. There were also great differences between night and day temperatures, ranging from 1.3 °C (12th November) to 11.8 °C (30th November).
 In November, the daily average temperature was only three times below the average of the period from 1981 to 2010 (5.1 °C). The maximum temperature was twelve days below 10 °C, sixteen days between 10 and 15 °C and two days above 15 °C. The lowest temperature in November was -1.9 °C and the highest temperature was 19.8 °C. In 2018, the last week of November was colder than this year (up to -7.3 °C).
 In the first eleven months, the average temperature was 1.3 °C higher than the long-term average. According to the ARSO measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours) was 1 °C higher. 

 


Precipitation data show that there was very heavy rainfall in November. The measuring device detected 115.2 mm of precipitation, which is almost half as long as the long-term average (69 mm of precipitation). As compared to November 2018, 55.8 mm more precipitation (almost half more) fell.
 In the first eleven months, 16.6 mm more precipitation fell than the long-term average. In the first eleven months, fell 95.02 % of the long-term average precipitation. In comparison, last year, 75.6 mm less precipitation fell during this time. 

The average relative humidity in November was 90.48 %, which is higher 9.28 % than in October and is slightly higher than in 2018 (89.05 %). Given more precipitation, this was expected.
 It has been the wettest month in the last two years, and it is in fourth place in terms of precipitation. 

Events in Hamburg

Our week in Hamburg was amazing. We arrived on Sunday (17.11.2019) and got a loving welcome from our exchange students at the airport. Their families have kindly welcomed us in their homes, where we were staying for the week. The activities during the week were very interesting and amusing. We got to know one another better through them. There was always happening something. We really liked the Selfie Rallye and the Dialogue in the dark where we could learn more about the beautiful city and the way blind people live. We learned a lot of new things about ourselves, the different themes that we talked about like solar panels, about the city Hamburg and much more. The best part of the exchange was that we really got to connect with each other and that we met so many new people with which we became good friends. We also got to see the daily school routine from a German student which is quite different than ours. After one week together we had to say goodbye which was very hard. But not for long because we already can’t wait for them to come to Maribor and learn more about our city. We all agree that we would be more than happy to repeat the great week that we had in Hamburg. We are very thankful for the experience and would like to thank everyone that was included in the project, especially the families that were letting us stay in their homes. We can’t wait to see you again! 


We are exploring downtown.

Hamburg, we're coming.

I haven't done that before.

Why is it not spinning ????

So let's see what the view of Hamburg looks like.

Wonderful!!!!!

With Selfie Relly we get to know Hamburg.

We enjoyed the DOM amusement park.

We were skating. But we didn't slip.

We are excited about the product.

Last dinner. Made by students.

We made mounts for solar modules ...

We created posters to present the project.

We set up a school meadow.

Meteorological report for October (Maribor) 

October provided us with high temperatures for this time of year. However, temperatures varied greatly throughout the month. Compared to October 2018, temperatures were slightly lower and rainfall was also lower.
The difference between the highest (21th October) and the lowest (8th October) measured temperature in the month was as high as 24 °C.
 The average monthly temperature was higher than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 12.41 °C and was 1.71 °C higher than the long-term average. The long-term average for October is 10.7 °C in Maribor. The average temperature fluctuated throughout the month. The difference between the average temperature of the coldest (30th October) and the warmest (1th October) day was as high as 11.72 °C. The differences between night and day temperatures also varied greatly, ranging from 2.4 °C (29th October) to 19 °C (21th October). The data show that the changes were very fast.
 In October, the daily average temperature was only eight times below the average of the period from 1981 to 2010 (10.7 °C). The maximum temperature was thirteen days below 20 °C, four days below 10 °C, eighteen days above 20 °C, two days above 25 °C. The lowest temperature in October was 3.6 °C and the highest temperature was 27.6 °C. In the first ten months, the average temperature was 1.16 °C higher than the long-term average. According to the ARSO measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours) was 0.83 °C higher. 

 


Precipitation data show that October was very dry. The measuring device detected only 35.6 mm of precipitation, which is actually just under half of the long-term average (78 mm of precipitation). As compared to October 2018, there was 15.4 mm less precipitation. In the first ten months, 29.6 mm less precipitation fell than the long-term average. In the first ten months, fell 82.12 % of the long-term average precipitation. In comparison, last year, 19.8 mm less precipitation fell during this time. 

The average relative humidity in October was 81.20 %, which is slightly higher (1.7 %) than in September and slightly higher than in 2018 (80.53 percent). Given less precipitation, this is a small surprise. 

Meteorological report for September (Maribor) 

September provided us with slightly higher temperatures than our long-term average. For three consecutive months, frequent rainfall withstood the high temperatures. Compared to September last year, temperatures were lower and rainfall was much higher this year.
The difference between the highest (1th September) and the lowest (22th September) measured temperature in the month was as high as 27.3 °C.
The average monthly temperature was higher than the average of the period from 1981 to 2010, it was 16.36 °C, and was 0.76 °C higher than the long-term average. The long-term average for September is 15.6 °C in Maribor. The average temperature fluctuated throughout the month. The difference between the average temperature of the coldest (20th September) and the warmest (1st September) day was as high as 12.73 °C. There were also great differences between night and day temperatures, ranging from 3.3 °C (6 th September) to 17.7 °C (22th September). The data obtained show that the changes were very fast.
In September, the daily average temperature was thirteen times below the average of the period from 1981 to 2010 (15.6 °C). The maximum temperature was nine days below 20 °C, nine days above 25 °C, one day above 30 °C. The lowest temperature in September was 4 °C and the highest temperature was 31,3 °C. In the first nine months, the average temperature was 1.10 °C higher than the long-term average. According to the ARSO measurement method, which is official for the whole of Europe (measurements at 7, 14 and 21 hours), was 0.78 °C higher. 

 


Precipitation data show that in September one-third more precipitation than in August. The long-term average precipitation dropped in September. The measuring device detected that 99.8 mm of precipitation, which is actually equal the long-term average (99 mm of precipitation). As compared to September 2018, 52.6 mm more precipitation fell. In the first nine months, 12.8 mm more precipitation fell than the long-term average. In the first nine months, fell 78.14 % of the long-term average precipitation. In comparison, last year, 35.2 mm less precipitation fell during this time. 

The average relative humidity in September was 79.54 %, which is higher 4.1 % than in August and more than in September 2018 (76.6 %). Given much more precipitation, this was expected.